In 2007, Benazir Bhutto — twice prime minister of Pakistan and then-leader of the Pakistan People's Party — was killed in a suicide bombing attack that claimed 38 lives. The factors at play in her assassination, however, reached deeper than many imagined.
In his new book, Getting Away With Murder, Heraldo Munoz portrays the tense political climate that surrounded Bhutto's return to politics and examines the circumstances of her death.
Munoz himself was an investigator on the United Nations-led team that sought to identify Bhutto's killers, and he says he was inspired to write the book as a result of his role in uncovering the sometimes slippery truth.
"Our commission did not have duty to establish responsibilities for the perpetration of the assassination, only to establish the facts and circumstances," Munoz says.
He spoke to NPR's Arun Rath about Bhutto and the still-unanswered questions that surround her death.
On Bhutto's concerns for her own safety
There were many signals and intelligence information that there would be ... extremist cells that would attack her, that would seek to kill her.
She also had information that people around [Pervez] Musharraf wanted to kill her. In fact, she sent a letter to Musharraf saying that three individuals ... were plotting against her.
So she felt there was a high risk of going back, but nevertheless she felt that she had no other choice — that this was her destiny [to go back].
On the circumstances surrounding her death
She's in this park, in the city of Rawalpindi, near Islamabad, and she's quite happy about the results of the rally. And she's going away from this park, and despite the protection she was to be afforded by the police, the police are nowhere to be found. And there's a huge number of people around her vehicle. And an individual fires and then blows himself up — a suicide bomber — and kills 38 people, including Benazir Bhutto.
Many stories around this, I began to discover in this investigation, including that there was a back-up car that was bullet-proof that was no where to be found. ...
I think she died out of the blast, by hitting her head on the lip of the escape hatch. There was no autopsy done because the police impeded that from being carried out. So we'll never know, exactly, the cause of death. But the best we can say is that it was a blast and her hitting her head as a consequence of the blast.
On who holds responsibility
In the book, I came out with a sort of metaphor: There's a play in Spain — an old play, 17th century — called Fuenteovejuna, which is about this ruler of a village, who's very much hated by the population, and he's assassinated one day. And a judge comes in from out of town, and he has to interrogate every villager. And every villager says, "Fuenteovejuna did it," the village did it.
In a sense, I think Fuenteovejuna did the assassination of Benazir Bhutto. The village did it. Because al-Qaida was certainly behind it — they gave the order. The Pakistani Taliban executed it. The local police was involved in a cover-up, in my view, because I watched the scene of the crime one hour and a half immediately removing a lot of important evidence. ... And the U.S. and the U.K. promoted [her] return but without providing any security — they didn't want to take any responsibility for that.
And in the end, most political actors would rather turn the page, rather than continue to investigate who did it. So, in a sense, she was part of the circumstances of her time and there were many people who wanted to do her harm.
Aside from racial and ethnic slurs, there aren't many words that prompt a more immediate and visceral response than "hipster." Many associate the term with craft beer, smugness and, of course, Brooklyn. Modern-day hipsters have inspired a huge number of Tumblrs, memes and trend pieces in the media.
It may seem like hipsters sprang up out of nowhere sometime in the late 1990s, but the original hipsters were around several generations before that. And they were strongly associated with another uniquely American phenomenon — jazz.
The word "hip," signifying cool or trendy, has been part of American English since the early 1900s, but its exact origins are unknown. What we do know is that the word became widely used in the '30s and '40s. As jazz became more popular, young white people began to travel to African-American clubs and neighborhoods, especially Harlem, to embrace black music and dance.
In 1939, the jazz singer Cab Calloway published Cab Calloway's Hepster's Dictionary: Language of Jive. A hep cat was "a guy who knows all the answers, understands jive." The hep cats and hepsters Calloway described would in the following years become known as hipsters.
Two years later, the African-American pianist and journalist Dan Burley released his Original Handbook of Harlem Jive. A journalist for Harlem's Amsterdam News, Burley was the author of a newspaper column called "Back Door Stuff," which documented the jazz scene in Harlem in the '40s and the "jive" spoken by the hep cats/hipsters.
As author Phil Ford notes in his book, Dig: Sound and Music in Hip Culture:
"In his second column for the Amsterdam News, Burley gives us a quick pen portrait of the hipster: 'Lenox Avenue is his kingdom. Worldly wise, he ekes out an existence in lean times that allows him to keep out of the bread lines, dodge WPA toil and the other distasteful avenues of regular labor. He knows Lenox Avenue and the avenue knows him.' "
It's important to note here that Burley and Calloway weren't necessarily using the word hipster in a pejorative way. It was a neutral way to refer to someone who was hip and familiar with the jazz scene.
The journalist Anatole Broyard (who was black but passed as white) was much more critical in his 1948 essay "A Portrait of the Hipster," which was published in Partisan Review in 1948.
As writer Jim Burns notes in this essay:
"In Broyard's words: 'The hipster promptly became in his own eyes, a poet, a seer, a hero.' And he added that the hipster life-style 'grew more rigid than the Institutions it had set out to defy. It became a boring routine. The hipster —once an unregenerate Individualist, an underground poet, a guerrilla — had become a pretentious poet laureate.' "
Norman Mailer wrote in his 1957 essay, "The White Negro: Superficial Reflections on the Hipster," "The hipster had absorbed the existentialist synapses of the Negro, and for practical purposes could be considered a white Negro."
Later in the same essay, Mailer described the hipster of the 1950s as "a philosophical psychopath, a man interested not only in the dangerous imperatives of his psychopathy but in codifying, at least for himself, the suppositions on which his inner universe is constructed."
After the 1940s ended and the popularity of jazz peaked, the word hipster mainly faded from use until the '90s when it re-emerged again to describe an emerging "indie" youth culture. But despite the prevalence of the word the question remains as to what exactly defines a hipster.
While the hipsters of the 1930s and '40s really did have a unifying culture of jazz and other forms of African-American music, there doesn't seem to be any overarching cultural phenomenon that unites all modern-day hipsters (and it's pretty difficult to find any 20-something that self-identifies as one. See The Onion's, "Two Hipsters Angrily Call Each Other 'Hipster' ").
Reporter Steven Kurutz noted in a September New York Times essay that there didn't seem to be any clothes or hobbies that he could wear or engage in without being accused of being a hipster. "Has there ever been a subculture this broadly defined?"
Kurutz's question was answered by Kat Stoeffel in a New York Magazine blog post last week, 2013: Another Year of the Effing Hipster?, where she likens hipster to "less a style than an accusation of trying too hard, lobbed by people who consider themselves above such effort."
Not long ago, Nick Lowe was approached by his American record label about releasing a Christmas album. The esteemed UK songwriter, who gave the world "(What's So Funny 'Bout) Peace, Love, and Understanding" and "Cruel to Be Kind," says the idea seemed laughable.
"But I was confused by how snooty I felt when they asked me about doing it," Lowe says. "I think it's a Brit thing, really: Making Christmas records is seen as a not very cool thing to do. And I thinkg it's all bound up with strange ideas from the 1960s, about selling out and things like that."
Lowe says his management was skeptical, too. Then, an idea struck him.
"Instead of just knocking out the same 12 songs that everyone always seems to do," Lowe says. "I thought, 'Well, with a little bit of work, I could make it a little bit different.'"
That meant writing new songs, ones sardonic and original enough to sit alongside any in his catalog, and giving what Lowe calls "a brand new suit of clothes" to the more well-worn classics. He NPR's Arun Rath in the studio to chat about the process and perform a few songs from the new Quality Street: A Seasonal Selection for All the Family. Hear their conversation at the audio link.
Late-night comedy show hosts are known for opening their programs in a certain style. David Letterman takes to the stage with a wave and a smile. Jay Leno comes out and shakes hands with the audience.
Eric Andre takes quite a different approach: flying into an uncontrollable rage as soon as the band plays him on and smashing nearly everything on the set.
"During the intro of my show, I hurt myself, I hurt my shoulder pretty bad. I hurt my back really bad," he tells All Things Considered host Arun Rath.
"I jumped on my desk and landed right on my tuckus during the Vivica Fox interview and I just like wrenched my back and sent a shock wave up my spine. ... My back still feels kind of asymmetrical."
The Eric Andre Show lasts just 15 minutes, and appears in the middle of the night during on the Cartoon Network.
Nothing about the show is normal, least of all the celebrity interviews — which he conducts with outrageous questions and stunts that sometimes border on mockery. Andre says he's not trying to be mean.
"Nothing I'm doing is meant to be mean-spirited because that's not fun or funny. Anybody can be mean," he says. "It's more about just being absurd and just wildly inappropriate for the sake of comedy."
Spin Magazine has called it "the weirdest show on TV."
Still, it's generated a rabid fan base. The show wraps its second season Thursday, and has been picked up for a third season.
On the vision behind the show
It is like a mock-talk show or an anti-talk-show talk show, where I just destroy the talk show from the beginning to the end — deconstructing ... the fact that most talk show hosts have to just be overly polite and be like, "You're so great, Victoria's Secret model who doesn't know anything! We're best friends."
And I just think it's way funnier for a host to just be completely uninformed and spaced out and apathetic.
Do celebrity guests know what they're getting into?
Some people are totally in the dark. Some people don't even know the name of the show or who I am before they do it. Like, we had Demi Lovato on the show for the New Year's special. And I called her up, I just wanted to like call her up and be like, "Hey thanks so much for doing the show," before she came on. And she goes, "I just wanna let you know I've seen your Billion Dollar Movie a hundred times." And I was like, "Oh no, that's Eric Wareheim. That's 'Tim and Eric' Eric."
And then she goes, "Oh." ...
I just kept my fingers crossed that she wouldn't cancel.
On getting the show renewed for a third season
I'm so happy it's all working out because I was so broke for like 10 years trying to make a living doing comedy. I was eating beans by candle light for a decade. It's nuts that people are listening to the demons in my brain. But it's awesome. I can't believe it.
A European lawmaker says former NSA contractor Edward Snowden is set to testify before a civil liberties committee of the European Parliament later this month.
Snowden, of course, is expected to talk about the surveillance activities of United States' National Security Agency. Reporter Terri Schultz filed this report for our Newscast unit:
"Snowden could appear in a videoconference conversation as early as December 18th, says German Green member of parliament Jan-Philipp Albrecht. The initiative comes from the former NSA contractor himself, who reportedly brought it up months ago with his lawyers.
"Members of the civil-liberties committee will have to vote in favor of holding a Snowden hearing; some British conservatives are opposed but the proposal is expected to pass. Even supportive members, however, question Snowden's motivation in the entire affair and would like to grill him on whether he's now cooperating with the Russian or Chinese governments.
"Since interviewing Snowden live could reveal clues about his exact whereabouts in Russia, committee members would send him questions and he would record answers to be played back to the parliament."
European countries have become very interested in the work of the NSA, because documents leaked by Snowden show that the U.S. collects vast troves of data of French and German citizens.
A German lawmaker had previously asked Snowden to testify before his Parliament, but Snowden declined, saying he would happily do so, but he first wanted to testify before the U.S. Congress.
It's not clear why Snowden, who is exiled in Russia, has changed his mind.