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Protesters walk in front of a line of police as authorities try to disperse a demonstration in Ferguson, Mo. early Wednesday. The St. Louis suburb saw less violence than recent nights of protests. (AP)

A 'Different Dynamic' In Ferguson, But With 47 Arrests

Aug 20, 2014

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Tear gas and Molotov cocktails were absent from Ferguson's streets last night, as protesters and police avoided the clashes that have marred demonstrations over an unarmed black teenager's death at the hands of police in the St. Louis suburb last weekend.

Missouri Highway Patrol Capt. Ron Johnson, who is in charge of security in Ferguson, announced that 47 arrests had been made, and that three loaded handguns were confiscated.

"Tonight we saw a different dynamic," Johnson said, according to St. Louis Public Radio. "Protest crowds were a bit smaller and they were out earlier. We had to respond to fewer incidents than the night before. There were no Molotov cocktails tonight."

The demonstrations were largely peaceful, particularly early in the night. Police forced the crowds to stay on the move, enforcing a ban on "static assembly" that was implemented this week.

A prayer session ended with urges for people to head home, reports NPR's Brakkton Booker. But some people stayed on the streets, and as the night wore on, bottles were thrown at police. That led officers to put on helmets and shields and try to find the "agitators," Johnson said.

"Nearly four dozen arrests were made by the time the protests ended for the night," Brakkton says. "This includes one person police say is from Texas — and it was the third time this person has been arrested at the protests."

St. Louis County Prosecutor Bob McCulloch has said he will being presenting witnesses today in the case of Michael Brown, 18, who died after being shot by officer Darren Wilson on Aug. 9, to a grand jury Wednesday.

As St. Louis Public Radio explains, some have called for McCulloch to recuse himself from the case:

"McCulloch's critics say that McCulloch has a conflict of interest in this case because his father was a policeman killed on duty by a black suspect. Others point to McCulloch's role campaigning for County Councilman Steve Stenger in his successful bid to oust incumbent County Executive Charlie Dooley in the Aug. 5 primary. Dooley is African-American."

Last night, Missouri Gov. Jay Nixon issued a statement saying he will not seek to replace McCulloch.

The Justice Department is conducting its own investigation into the case — and Attorney General Eric Holder, who is expected to arrive in Ferguson today, wrote an op-ed piece for the St. Louis Post-Dispatch in which he said that about 40 FBI agents are working on the case.

Holder also said that the violence that has broken out during some protests undermines, rather than advances, the cause of justice. At one point, he addressed the community's residents directly:

"This is my pledge to the people of Ferguson: Our investigation into this matter will be full, it will be fair, and it will be independent. And beyond the investigation itself, we will work with the police, civil rights leaders, and members of the public to ensure that this tragedy can give rise to new understanding — and robust action — aimed at bridging persistent gaps between law enforcement officials and the communities we serve."

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Protesters walk in front of a line of police as authorities try to disperse a demonstration in Ferguson, Mo. early Wednesday. The St. Louis suburb saw less violence than recent nights of protests. (AP)

Book News: Laura Ingalls Wilder's Memoir To Be Published

by Annalisa Quinn
Aug 20, 2014

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Annalisa Quinn

The daily lowdown on books, publishing, and the occasional author behaving badly.

  • Laura Ingalls Wilder's rough memoir of frontier life, which served as the basis for her Little House on the Prairie series, will be published this fall as Pioneer Girl: The Annotated Autobiography. The Associated Press reports, "The not-safe-for-children tales include stark scenes of domestic abuse, love triangles gone awry and a man who lit himself on fire while drunk off whiskey," adding, "Wilder and her daughter Rose Wilder Lane, herself a well-known author, tried and failed to get an edited version of the autobiography published throughout the early 1930s." It will be published by the South Dakota State Historical Society Press.
  • Simin Behbahani, the poet often called the "Lioness of Iran," died on Tuesday morning in Tehran. She was 87. In a remembrance, NPR senior producer Davar Ardalan said, "Her words were piercing and fierce, lamenting on the lack of freedom of expression through the ages. For six decades, many Iranians found refuge in her poetry as a way to nurture their hunger for dialogue, peace, human rights and equality."
  • For The New Yorker, Teju Cole writes about racism in the U.S., James Baldwin and Baldwin's wonderful essay "Stranger in the Village." He says, "The news of the day (old news, but raw as a fresh wound) is that black American life is disposable from the point of view of policing, sentencing, economic policy, and countless terrifying forms of disregard. There is a vivid performance of innocence, but there's no actual innocence left. The moral ledger remains so far in the negative that we can't even get started on the question of reparations. Baldwin wrote Stranger in the Village more than sixty years ago. Now what?" (For further reading, see Laila Lalami's piece for NPR on Baldwin's Notes of a Native Son and the chaos in Ferguson, Mo.)
  • "I wrote fiction for 17 years before I found out I was a fantasy novelist." — Lev Grossman writes in The New York Times about discovering his vocation.
  • An 86-year-old great-great grandmother named Georgia Gorringe has published her first romance novel. "It's about a bored housewife, and she listens to talk radio," Gorringe told KUTV in Salt Lake City, adding, "And that voice on the radio, oh, he had a magic voice! And it just turned her on!" The station quotes Gorringe's daughter as saying, "Sometimes I'm like, mother, how could you do that? How can you write that?" Gorringe didn't specify whether the sexy voice was based on a real radio host. (But we have our guesses.)
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James Foley in Aleppo, Syria, in September 2012. (AP)

Video Purports To Show Beheading Of U.S. Journalist By Militants

Aug 20, 2014

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Extremist group the Islamic State claims to have executed American journalist James Foley, who was abducted in Syria in 2012. The FBI is evaluating a video that was posted online Tuesday, purporting to show Foley's beheading.

That video was uploaded to YouTube on Tuesday afternoon and later removed. The images show a man resembling Foley kneeling next to a masked militant, reciting comments against the U.S. before being killed.

U.S. officials tell the Associated Press that Islamic State had recently threatened to kill Foley to avenge U.S. airstrikes that have helped Iraqi forces regain key sites, including the Mosul dam.

The Islamic State also says it's holding another American journalist, Steven Joel Sotloff, who went missing in Syria last year, and that Sotloff could be the next victim.

National Security Council spokeswoman Caitlin Hayden says U.S. officials are studying the video to determine whether it's genuine:

"We have seen a video that purports to be the murder of U.S. citizen James Foley by ISIL. The intelligence community is working as quickly as possible to determine its authenticity. If genuine, we are appalled by the brutal murder of an innocent American journalist and we express our deepest condolences to his family and friends. We will provide more information when it is available."

Foley has been missing since November of 2012, when he was kidnapped while reporting in Syria for the news organization GlobalPost. A Facebook page was later created to call for his return; last night, it posted this statement from Foley's mother, Diane:

"We have never been prouder of our son Jim. He gave his life trying to expose the world to the suffering of the Syrian people.
"We implore the kidnappers to spare the lives of the remaining hostages. Like Jim, they are innocents. They have no control over American government policy in Iraq, Syria or anywhere in the world.
"We thank Jim for all the joy he gave us. He was an extraordinary son, brother, journalist and person. Please respect our privacy in the days ahead as we mourn and cherish Jim."

GlobalPost notes that, "The Foley family has not received confirmation of Jim's death from the U.S. government, and acknowledged that there is still a small chance the video of his apparent killing will prove to have been fake."

The company's CEO and co-founder, Philip Balboni, says GlobalPost had been working to learn who kidnapped Foley, and where he was being held captive.

"Although GlobalPost's investigation at one point led us to believe that James was being held by the Syrian government, we later were given strong reason to believe he was being held by Islamic militants in Syria," Balboni said. "We withheld this information at the request of the family and on the advice of authorities cooperating in the effort to protect Jim. GlobalPost, working with a private security company, has amassed an enormous amount of information that has not been made public."

Foley was on a freelance assignment for GlobalPost when he was abducted in northern Syria on Nov. 22, 2012. He had been making his way to the Turkish border when he was stopped by a group of armed men, the organization says.

Back in 2011, Foley was one of three journalists who were held captive for more than a month after being attacked by Gaddafi fighters near Benghazi. A fourth journalist didn't survive the attack.

Their ordeal led Foley and one of his colleagues, American Claire Gillis, to visit NPR's Talk of the Nation back in 2011. Discussing the uncertain weeks of their captivity, Foley said they "turned to a lot of prayer" and exercise. In the end, he was the last of the journalists to be released, after spending a week as the sole Westerner in the prison.

"I started to have some dark thoughts," he said. "I started to think, you know, maybe they're keeping the American guy as the ace in the hole... I thought maybe I was going to be a bargaining chip."

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A crew of volunteer "aunties" weed and harvest basil at the ComCrop rooftop farm, set high above Singapore's Orchard Road. (NPR)

Urban Farms Build Resilience Within Singapore's Fragile Food System

by Maureen Pao
Aug 20, 2014

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With the little unused spaced left in the island-state, Singapore's farmers are trying new ways of improving the island-state's food security. Here, a view of the Marina Bay Sands resort complex in central Singapore. The mint and basil grown on the 6,000-square-foot ComCrop farm is used mainly by high-end bars and restaurants. Eventually, ComCrop will sell or donate the tilapia it uses to enrich the water that irrigates its Italian basil, peppermint, spearmint, heirloom tomatoes and leafy greens. The top floor of the People's Park Complex garage is home to the Edible Gardens showcase -- where the company grows herbs, sells supplies, holds classes and presents lectures on urban and sustainable farming techniques. Sky Greens' crops grow on 30-foot-high A-frames in water-powered rotating troughs. Sky Greens' leafy greens, such as nai bai (similar to bok choy), cost about 10 percent more than vegetables from Malaysia and are sold through FairPrice, a local supermarket chain.

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At a local FairPrice Supermarket in central Singapore, you'll find baby carrots grown in Bakersfield, Calif., - the same ones for sale at my local grocery store in Washington, D.C.

Such well-traveled vegetables aren't unusual in the tiny island-state, which imports more than 90 percent of its food from some 35 countries. Singapore may be one of the most affluent countries in the world, but it depends heavily on others for basic foodstuffs.

A new crop of farmers is trying to change that. Just as property developers build up when they can't build out, so, too, are these agricultural pioneers. Vertical farming is taking hold across Singapore — not only in greenhouses in the vanishing countryside but on rooftops in the heart of the city, amid soaring skyscrapers and housing blocks. The goal is to farm as efficiently as possible and maximize the remaining land — as well as abandoned and under-utilized spaces — and shore up Singapore's food security.

In the 1960s, farms occupied about 10 percent of Singapore's 280 square miles, says Ngiam Tong Tau, a former government official who now is chairman of Sky Greens, one of Singapore's vertical farms.

Today, it's shrunk to less than 1 percent to make way for housing and industry.

Not only land is in short supply, but water is, too. Singapore imports an estimated 30 to 40 percent of its water from neighbor Malaysia.

All this means that these new rooftop and vertical farms could make a big difference for Singapore, helping to insulate it from both natural and man-made threats to its food supply that result in periodic food shortages and price spikes.

"In times of emergencies or food shortages around the world, [if] our neighbors ... don't want to export to us, we still have some food left for certain short periods of time until the food emergencies subside," Ngiam says.

Farming High In The Heart Of The City

Once lined with plantations, Singapore's Orchard Road is now a sort of Asian Rodeo Drive. But overlooking the commercial mecca is a different kind of oasis: 6,000 square feet of vegetable and fish gardens.

The aquaponic garden features mint, basil and leafy greens growing in clay pellets in rows on vertical A-frames that draw water from tanks filled with fish. The waste from the fish fertilizes the plants; eventually, the tilapia will become another crop — to be sold or donated to charity.

It's an economical system, says Allan Lim, one of the founders of ComCrop, the startup that built this garden. It costs about $1.60 a day to pump the water through the 10-foot-tall frames, which go for about $1,000 each.

This closed-loop irrigation system makes sense in tropical Singapore since it uses less water and loses less of it to evaporation and runoff than traditional soil farming. Still, for now, ComCrop relies on roughly two-thirds tap water — versus harvested rainwater — to replenish what's lost to evaporation.

Electricity costs are fairly low, too, and ComCrop's central location means it doesn't have to spend much to distribute its food to clients. Its vertical system yields eight to 10 times more crops than conventional, soil-based farming, according to Keith Loh, another one of the company's founders.

ComCrop sells its herbs wholesale to a local distributor that supplies high-end bars and restaurants. But one of the macro problems that these entrepreneurs are addressing is how to help Singapore's food supply withstand external disruptions like drought, flooding or trade restrictions due to regional public health issues - for example, when Malaysia halted poultry exports during the country's 2004 outbreak of avian flu.

Next year, they hope to scale up the farm by 10 times at another building that houses 80 food-processing companies, with a goal of producing 23 tons of food per month.

"Our goal is that when a time of need comes, the rooftop farm can convert into something important," Lim says.

From Ghost Town Garage To Showcase Garden

Atop the mostly empty garage of the People's Park Complex, a massive housing and commercial development in Chinatown, is a pop-up boutique, spare with a minimalist color palette and lots of reclaimed wood. It wouldn't look out of place in Brooklyn.

It's an outpost of Edible Gardens, a design firm founded two years ago by Briton Rob Pearce and Singaporean Bjorn Low that does foodscaping and landscaping for hotels and restaurants.

"Space in Singapore has to work really hard," says Pearce, who comes from a family of farmers in Somerset, England. "People see what we're doing, so it has to be beautiful."

The next beautification project is turning half of the garage's 60,000-square-foot roof into a farm. Pearce sees rooftop gardens that use otherwise abandoned or under-utilized spaces as a win-win solution for developers and urban farmers.

Reaching Higher In The Countryside

Singapore's vanishing countryside — accessible via a 40-minute ride on the immaculate and ultra-punctual MRT train — is home to Sky Greens, one of the world's first commercial vertical farms.

Though Sky Greens has put down roots on 8.6 acres, its crops grow in greenhouses on 30-foot-high vertical frames with hydraulic rotating troughs that bring the plants down to water and then up to the sun.

This kind of farming, says Ngiam, Sky Greens' chairman, yields five times more food than conventional farming.

"For every [2.5 acres], we should be able to produce 1,000 tons of vegetables per year — or about 1 percent of Singapore's needs for leafy green vegetables," Ngiam says.

With about half of the farm developed, Sky Greens is already producing 1.5 to 2 percent of Singapore's demand for leafy green vegetables such as baby bok choy, Chinese water spinach and Chinese broccoli, he says. Eventually, the farm will have 2,000 A-frames, which cost about $12,000 each.

Like other urban farms in Singapore, one of Sky Greens' advantages is how little water it uses, relying primarily on collected and recycled rainwater. And its system of hydraulic-powered rotating troughs means less spent on electricity, and even less water is wasted.

"The troughs come down and go into the water and go up. So there's no leaching of the water," Ngiam explains. "If you are planting on the soil, what the farmer does is pour a lot of water and then it just leaches out. For us, every drop is used by the plant."

Another advantage is that Sky Greens products can go from harvest to market within the same day. By comparison, vegetables from Malaysia travel one to two days to market.

Sky Greens vegetables do cost more: up to $2 per 3.5-ounce package, or about 10 percent more than vegetables from Malaysia. But Ngiam thinks some middle- and upper-income Singaporeans are willing to pay that premium.

Despite the challenges — of scale, pricing and sustainability — for each of these vertical and rooftop farms, the trend toward quality and the push toward self-sufficiency all point in one direction: up.

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Is the baby American, German, Pakistani, or Maldivian. (NPR)

If You're Born In The Sky, What's Your Nationality? An Airplane Puzzler

Aug 20, 2014

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A pregnant American woman boards a plane. The pregnant woman takes a nonstop flight from Germany to the Maldive Islands. 37,000 feet above Karachi, Pakistan, a baby girl is born in seat 13B. You can own the land but you can't own the clouds above it. Some nations grant citizenship to fly-by babies. A sky-baby passport.

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Here's a puzzle I bet you've never pondered.

Imagine you are very, very pregnant. For the purposes of this mind game, you are a married American woman (with an American spouse) and you are about to board a plane and, pregnant as you are, they let you on.

Your flight, on Lufthansa Airlines, will leave Frankfurt, Germany and travel nonstop to the Maldive Islands in the Indian Ocean. Germany is cold, wet and unhappy-making, and you crave the aquamarine waters, the balmy skies of the Maldives.

You take off. Then, hours later, just as your plane passes 37,000 feet above Karachi, Pakistan, heading south, your baby, in an inconvenient act of impetuosity, decides she wants to be born right then, right there — and so in row 13, Business Class seat 13B, you give birth to a healthy, somewhat surprised baby girl. The moment of birth happens as you are directly above Pakistani territory. Karachi is passing below as she emits her first cry. Everybody's fine — you, the baby, the crew.

Now comes my question. We've got an American mom on a German airplane in Pakistani airspace. What nationality is the baby?

Is she American? German? Pakistani? Maldivian? Or, some combination of those? Baby's choice? Mom's? Pakistan's?

I ask, because the question comes up in a book I'm reading, Unruly Spaces, by Alastair Bonnett. It's a book that thinks a lot about place. In this case one of the pertinent questions is, "Who governs the air?"

Theirs All The Way Up To Heaven

There is an ancient doctrine, enshrined in English common law, that says "Cuius est solum, eius est usque ad coelum et ad inferos," which means, "Whoever owns the soil, it is theirs all the way up to heaven and down to hell."

That was the old rule, before the advent of air balloons, then airplanes, then V2 rockets, then spy satellites. It's been seriously amended (at least in Britain) to, a much more modest, you own the airspace necessary for "the use and enjoyment" of your plot of land. So how high up is that?

Apparently, not that high. Clouds, for example, don't belong to you.

Nations have made bolder claims to owning the sky. Some countries say their territory extends 43 miles up, some say 99. Everyone agrees there's an upper limit, but legal theories differ. One notion says when there's no longer enough air in the atmosphere to lift a plane, that's where outer (and shared) space begins. Others say the private zone must include the path of an orbiting satellite. Eight equatorial nations, in the Bogota Declaration of 1976, bumped their claims to 22,300 miles above earth — where geostationary spy satellites can park and look down.

The Airborne Baby Question

Whatever the reach of nations, most of the earth is covered by ocean, and nobody owns the seas; so when traveling above the oceans you are geopolitically nowhere or everywhere. There is, of course, a notion from admiralty law that says if your ship is French, then while on board, you are legally in France.

Which means, writes Alastair Bonnett, "that if your plane is registered in Norway, even when you are in mid-Pacific, flying between Fiji and Tahiti, you are still in Norway and have to abide by Norwegian law." And that gets him to the Airborne Baby question:

This precept also suggests that babies born on planes will sometimes be citizens of the country where the plane is registered and sometimes take their parents' citizenship.

Apparently it depends. The national registry of the airline matters. The nation you are born over matters too. Some nations grant citizenship to fly-by babies. Some don't.

According to Alastair, "If you are born over the United States, in a foreign plane with foreign parents, you can still claim U.S. citizenship." Really? That's so generous! (Do Brazil, Russia, Egypt, grant a flyover baby the same option?)

I may be the only person on earth fascinated by this legal puzzle, but I bet there are some of you out there — lawyers, airline attendants, maybe even a real life "flyover baby" — who know if there's a general rule governing sky-births. Is there a practice followed by most nations, or does every case turn on its details, on its particular who, when and where?

Whatever the current practice, I have a suggestion. If you step back from our planet, and see that thin wisp of atmosphere girdling our big blue orb, it seems that air should have a special legal designation, with extra privileges for anybody lucky enough to be born in the sky. If I were king of the world, babies born in airplanes, balloons and blimps would, instead of choosing to be German, Maldivian or American, all get special heavenly blue passports with a stork on the cover labeled "Sky Baby" — and they'd be allowed to come and go anywhere they please. But that's just me talking.

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