Impurities found in a pea-sized diamond that came from the (very) deep have bolstered evidence for a vast "wet zone" in the Earth's mantle, scientists publishing in the latest issue of Nature say.
The 'ultradeep' diamond, which weighs less than one-tenth of a gram, was found on the surface a decade ago by a Brazilian prospector. But it was formed in a region of the mantle known as the transition zone, some 250 to 400 miles below the surface. By contrast, most diamonds are formed at depths of about 100 miles.
NPR's Nell Greenfieldboyce reports that the find points to the likelihood of "huge amounts of water — about the same amount that's in all the world's oceans," deep underground.
"What researchers have found is a microscopic fragment of a mineral called ringwoodite. It's inside a diamond that was blasted out of the deep Earth by a prehistoric volcanic eruption," she says.
But, it's not liquid water, explains Graham Pearson, a geologist who studied the stone at the University of Alberta and is the lead author on the Nature study.
"It's not a Jules Verne-style ocean you can sail a boat on," he says.
"What was most striking about the ringwoodite discovery ... was that 1.5 per cent of it was water, bound chemically to the mineral. Based on projections of how much ringwoodite scientists believe is in the Transition Zone, between 410 and 670 kilometres down, Dr. Pearson estimated that it contains 'a very, very large amount of water."
Although ringwoodite is thought to be one of the most common minerals in the Earth's interior, until now, it had only been seen in meteorites or made in the lab.
Here's why, according to Nature:
"Certain minerals have crystal structures that can form only at high pressures or temperatures, or both, and many rearrange themselves into different structures when the pressure is taken off or the temperature goes down. Thus, when the churning of the mantle brings rock towards the surface, some of the minerals that formed at great depths can no longer be found. But if the minerals are trapped inside diamonds, they stay compressed in their original forms."
"These high-pressure diamonds give you a window into the deep Earth,' says Pearson."
As oil production goes, Florida isn't much of a player. The state produced less than 2 million barrels last year, which is how much oil Texas pumps from its wells each day.
That's about to change as the revolution in oil drilling technology comes to Florida.
One of the areas targeted for oil drilling is at Jaime Duran's doorstep in the southwestern part of the state. A retired engineer, Duran lives in a cottage with his wife, Pamela, and the chickens they raise on a 5-acre plot. Last year, the Durans were surprised when a man came by with information about a plot of land just 1,300 feet from their house.
"He said he wasn't supposed to tell us a lot of things," Jaime Duran says. "But he says, basically, they're putting an oil well there."
The man was from a company hired by the driller. He delivered a letter that warned residents that they were in an evacuation zone, and of the possibility of a release of toxic hydrogen sulfide gas. Duran and his wife began doing research and asking questions.
The more they learned, the more alarmed they became, Duran says.
"Our biggest concern is not the hydrogen sulfide," he says. "Our biggest concern is the brine, the produced waters. Every gallon of oil that they extract, they will get 20 gallons of salt water. And that salt water is toxic."
A Texas company has already received permission from the state to drill an exploratory well on the land. The Dan A. Hughes Co. is now seeking permission for an injection well that would accommodate the millions of gallons of toxic brine produced in the drilling process.
Residents and environmental groups strongly oppose the plan. At a community center in Naples, state and federal officials recently held hearings to take public comments on the proposed well. Outside, activists rallied and chanted, calling on the EPA to deny the permit for an injection well, and for state authorities to reverse their decision allowing exploratory drilling.
A residents' group called Preserve Our Paradise has already filed a legal challenge. With just one road serving a large community, the current evacuation plan would not be adequate if there's an explosion, spill or toxic gas release, the group says.
Matthew Schwartz, director of the South Florida Wildlands Association, has environmental concerns. The well would be in the heart of the western Everglades, an area more diverse than Everglades National Park.
"It's not just saw grass. It's got this tremendous diversity," Schwartz says. "It is the last holdout for the Florida panther."
Florida's state animal is one of the most endangered species in America, with no more than 160 still left in the wild. With declining habitat, the panther's outlook already isn't good. Schwartz worries that mounting a major industrial operation will drive them out of the area.
But Florida's fish and wildlife commission disagrees. At the hearing, Darrell Land, a state panther specialist, said he saw no reason why the drilling would pose a problem.
"Panthers have utilized areas where active oil extraction is going on, and they've been doing that for 30 to 40 years," Land says. "We also know that panthers have learned to coexist with all kinds of disruption."
His comments, along with those of other state officials, were met with jeers and boos from the audience.
So far, state and federal officials haven't indicated that they see anything to stop the permit applications from being approved.
With new drilling technology, even long-neglected oil fields, such as those in Florida, can now be made productive. Oil companies have applied for 15 new drilling permits within the past year in Florida, and more are likely coming.
David Mica, the head of the Florida Petroleum Council, says with new techniques of directional drilling, companies can search for oil in sensitive areas with minimal surface disturbances.
"It's really the sort of thing that those that are concerned about our environment should be cheering for," Mica says.
The Dan A. Hughes Co. says it has no plans at this point to use fracking in Florida. But skeptical drilling opponents say that if the company changes its mind, Florida's rules do allow it to begin fracking in the Everglades after notifying state regulators.
This is the conclusion to an All Things Considered series that imagines a counterfactual history of World War I.
This year marks the centennial of the outbreak of World War I. What started as a beef between the Austro-Hungarian Empire and Serbia unleashed a clash that brought in Russia, Italy, France, Germany, England and eventually the United States.
All Things Considered has been underlining the war's historical importance by imagining the world if it had never happened — how would politics, science, literature, music have been different without that conflict?
We asked listeners to carry this idea of a counterfactual history and received over 1,500 thoughtful — and often hilarious — stories.
We've included a small selection below; some have been edited for length.
Josef Stalin would never have been more than a hairy, disaffected Georgian coffee shop habitue. He might have owned a shop in Tbilisi, and helped to care for his aging parents. He would have married a village girl and possibly become a drunken lout. At best, he would have become a town alderman.
Without a revolutionary cause, Fidel Castro focuses on improving his fastball and becomes a journeyman pitcher for the Chicago White Sox of the American League, helping pave the way for more Cubans to play in the United States.
There is no Harding "return to normalcy," and Governor James M. Cox of Ohio is elected president in 1920 and Franklin D. Roosevelt is elected Vice President. As Vice President, Franklin Roosevelt does not vacation in Campobello and does not contract polio, or, if he does, he receives treatment and does not become paralyzed. Cox is remembered as a better-than-average president, and Franklin D. Roosevelt is forgotten as someone who was vice president in the 1920s.
Benito Mussolini eschews teaching and politics, choosing instead to open up a small coffee/pastry shop in Switzerland called "Bene, Bene!" He goes on to write several dessert cookbooks, which become very popular in Spain and Italy. While on a book signing tour he is given the nickname "Il dolce" by his fans.
Woodrow Wilson's nativism policies destroying all hyphenated Americans' culture never happens. He loses mid-term elections and falls into obscurity. German-Americans continue to help create and build 20th Century America, resulting in a dual language nation with strong ties to more European homelands other than England.
Gavrilo Princip gets hooked on sandwiches, loses 50 pounds, and lands a lucrative endorsement deal advertising Subway sandwiches. Gavrilo becomes immortalized as a weight loss icon, forever relegating Jared to the dustbin of history.
Albert Einstein stays in Zurich, Switzerland, in 1914 instead of moving to Berlin without Maric and his sons. Zurich becomes a world center for physics. Einstein spends the rest of his life there — never marrying Elsa and never teaching at Princeton. With no World War II, atomic and nuclear warfare do not occur until after his death in 1955.
Eugene V. Debs is never arrested for making a speech in Canton, Ohio, urging resistance to the military draft of World War I. He is a founding member of many unions in the United States and runs for office under Democratic tickets. Finally, he is brought on board FDR's administration as Secretary of Labor to ease tensions with unions and business leaders.
Roy Disney served in the Navy and his younger brother Walt Disney, too young to join the military, found a ticket to the action as an ambulance driver for the Red Cross. So I am going to go out and on limb here: No World War I, no Mickey Mouse!
Without World War I, T.E. Lawrence would have continued his career in archaeology in the Middle East without pause. Without British encouragement to weaken the Ottoman Empire as part of WWI, the Arab revolts would have withered on the vine as the Ottoman Empire would have no external conflicts to keep them from dealing with their internal ones. Lawrence would not have become Lawrence of Arabia but instead Lawrence of Oxford, a traveling professor with extensive ties to the Ottoman Interior Ministry.
No World War I means no influenza pandemic in 1919. Among the millions who do not die is American intellectual Randolph Bourne, advocate of rights for the handicapped (a term he coined) and opponent of U.S. military intervention, which he condemned in his work "War is the Health of The State."
Baron Von Rickover would not have become a flying ace and folk legend, leaving Charles M. Schultz at a loss for what to do with his Snoopy cartoon character. We would have been spared bad novelty songs by the Royal Guardsmen and at least one frozen pizza company.
Canada would have maintained stronger ties to the political and economic powerhouse of the time, England, rather than gravitate toward the U.S. sphere of influence. As a result, Canada (with the support of England and its European allies) would control the Arctic and dominate North America.
Without World War I and hence, II, Britain would still have a strong military presence in India and have continued its colonial rule in the subcontinent for more years. There would not have been a partition of India in 1947, and Mahatma Gandhi would have lived longer.
I imagine that if the Bolshevik revolution had failed, then Communism might have failed to find a major foothold in Europe or elsewhere; without Cold War sentiment or McCarthyism, there may have not been a conflict in Vietnam, which was focused upon stopping the spread of Communism in that region.
As the 20th century progresses, the colonial territories of Asia and Africa enjoy a steady improvement in standard of living, but over time simmering nationalist movements turn into terrorist cells. The United States, after briefly flirting with Imperial possessions gained in the Spanish-American war, becomes a supporter of many of these nationalist movements and by the end of the century is widely vilified in the world community for its steadfast opposition of colonialism and for tacitly supporting anti-imperial movements all around the world.
A. I. Michalus
The Ottoman Empire would not have fallen. At least, not the way it did. The nation of Turkey would not have had Kemel Attaturk to pull it into the 20th century. Maybe no Armenian genocide, either.
China would probably not be a world power. The First World War greatly weakened Western powers such as France, Great Britain and the United States, all of which were engaged in China at the time. Had their power remained considerable, the Beiyang Government, the entity that controlled China between 1912 and 1928, may not have fallen to Chiang Kai-shek's Kuomintang forces.
The Civil Rights Movement of the '50s and '60s would have been delayed by decades. Black soldiers would not have been able to showcase their bravery or experience a more tolerant Europe. The soldiers would not have become frustrated at the ironic indignity of fighting for freedom abroad while serving in a segregated military and returning home to Jim Crow. That frustration help lay the groundwork for the movement.
Without WWI, USA doesn't ramp up its production capacity which brings women into the workplace and sets into motion the sweeping changes career and employment opportunities for women. Contraception is not promoted as a liberating option for women, and birthrates of American women continue to rise.
Food & Drink
This is a very minor thing, but potato bread and carrot cake would not be common if WWI did not happen, because they were popularized as K-bread, or Kriegsbrot — war bread, a type of ersatz material. Germany had to use ersatz (or substitute) materials since they were a food importing country and the British blockade cut off a majority of the food supply.
Without World War I, the Progressives continue their push for nationwide prohibition but fail because there is no anti-German (beer makers) craze or war effort shortages of grain that is used to in the production of alcohol. The final vote in Congress on the proposed 18th Amendment is barely defeated. As a result, there is no reason for Al Capone to move to Chicago to start his bootlegging and prostitution rings. Capone remains in New York where he is appointed as a judge and eventually is elected to the U.S. Senate.
Without the two world wars we may not eat turkey for Thanksgiving. Turkey is an Army tradition for Thanksgiving and the popularity of turkey really didn't start until soldiers, who had acquired a taste for turkey during the war years, came home and requested turkey during the post-war Thanksgiving.
If the Spanish Civil War (1936-39) wasn't sparked, Forrest E. Mars Sr. may not have begun making hard shelled chocolates called M&M's. The main success of this product was the chocolate's resiliency in the Pacific Theater's warmer climate, making them a staple for C-rations.
The development of the airplane was greatly accelerated and influenced by the aviation needs of the war. By the end of the war, aircraft were being designed with enclosed cockpits and metal fuselages.
In the U.S. it would be unlikely that the interstate highway system would have developed as it did. Instead of the U.S. system being modeled after the Autobahn, and built in a furor over twenty to thirty years with standardized construction, likely our highway system would have evolved piecemeal with little cohesion and connectivity would likely have remained robust only on a regional level.
Without WWI, German zeppelin production was not halted in 1918 and planes were not advanced as quickly for use in warfare. There was open trading between Germany and North America, allowing the German based Zeppelin company to procure sufficient helium supplies. Consequently the Hindenburg disaster never occurred, and zeppelins became the travel method of choice well into the 20th and 21st centuries.
There would have been no need to nationalize the railroads during WWI under the United States Railway Administration. There would have been no standardized locomotive designs, and we would be without some truly beautiful steam locomotives.
World War I was a watershed in golf. When it was over, for the first time, the best British golfers were no longer the best golfers in the world. Surely, many potential British golfing stars were lost, outright, in the war or injured in ways that ended their competitive careers. Where golf before the war was dominated by the British, Americans took over the heights of the British game.
Without WWI (and hence WWII), the ski industry in the US never takes off. With no 10th Mountain Division veterans coming home after WWII, major ski resorts across the U.S. would never have existed.
Science & Technology
Our understanding of weather and climate would not be nearly as robust without satellites looking back at our planet and less powerful supercomputers to model the complex interactions. Climate change would probably still happen but our ability to understand and model its effects would likely be diminished.
Healthcare delivery would likely follow a different path: Employer-based health insurance came about, in part, due to wage limits in the 1940's during WWII. To recruit workers without increasing pay, companies began adding health insurance packages.
There would be delayed introduction of home radio, absence of the crucible that gave birth to modern electronic news reporting and an America different from ours in untold ways — one where the socio-political imperative that gave us National Public Radio may not have existed.
There would not had be the necessity of developing a military need to communicate within computers (Internet) hence the World Wide Web would had been delayed probably 20 more years and you would be receiving this piece of information in the form of a written piece of paper.
When soldiers who had been exposed to mustard gas during WWI came home, doctors noticed nitrogen mustard had adverse effects on bone marrow and white blood cells. At the time hematologists were looking for ways to combat blood cancers and the idea of using small doses of nitrogen mustard to treat leukemia was one of the first forms of chemotherapy, and it was surprisingly successful.
The science of geophysics would never have come to be. During the fighting on the Western Front, scientists attempted to triangulate the location of enemy artillery fire by placing sound microphones on the ground and using time and distance calculations to determine their position when they shook the earth firing shells.
Without World War I, farmers did not over-invest in infrastructure to feed the warring continent. Instead, their growth remained slow and steady with attention to the health and well-being of the soil. They did not suffer catastrophic debt in the 1920s but continued to refine techniques, save seeds, breed culturally appropriate animals and transition farms from generation to generation. The petrochemical industry grew at a similarly modest rate and thereby did not need to rapidly transition production and marketing from the military industrial complex to domestic agriculture. Synthetic fertilizers would eventually become one tool in the farmer's toolbox rather than the predominant method of crop production.
Hitler's rise to power included a stigmatization of most modern visual art by labeling it "degenerate." How would European modern art be viewed if this hadn't happened? Certainly more artists may have remained in Europe. Would the modern art movement of Expressionism become German Expressionism? Would Dada have been born? The migration of European artists to the U.S. influenced our first homegrown modern art movement: Abstract Expressionism, which led to New York becoming the center of the art world.
As a visual artist, I realize how much less zany Western art would have been. Sure Picasso and others got Cubism started before the war, but it could have remained a minor movement like Futurism or Rayonism and other not-so-famous offshoots.
Without World War I, Marcel Duchamp never would have moved to New York City, exhibited his controversial work Fountain in 1917 (a urinal he signed R. Mutt) and changed art history. He might have stayed in France and been remembered as a Cubist painter and chess enthusiast.
Architecture would be much more decorative. WWI spelled the end of the aesthetic movement in architecture, and spurned us into the modern age of sleek and simplified design due to a lack of artisans and money to pay for the cost of aesthetic design.
Agatha Christie might not become a world-famous detective novelist and playwright. Christie worked in a hospital dispensary during the First World War. It was here that she began to plan her first detective novel, in response to her sister's earlier challenge to write a mystery that the reader could not unravel before the end of the book. The ample time the dispensary job gave her to ponder her sister's challenge and plan the story, alone with the knowledge of drugs and poisons she had gained on the job, lent themselves to the writing of The Mysterious Affair at Styles, the novel that launched her career as a mystery writer and introduced the world to Hercule Poirot.
Michael J. Haas
We would not have the powerful verse of poets like Wilfred Owen, nor would we have the heartbreaking and wasteful loss. War defined so much of the macho literature of the 20th century from writers like Hemingway. No Great War would have left more room for women's literary voices to rise to the heights of Hemingway, because those voices would sound like so much macho posturing.
Without World War I, science fiction writers create radically different futuristic worlds. Dystopias based on the horrors of alien invasions, repressive regimes armed with obliterating or all-seeing technologies and post-apocalyptic survivors are absent. Instead, science fiction relays on themes like fear of death or disease and humanity's problematic relationship with progress. Less War of the Worlds and more World War Z.
J.R.R. Tolkien does not fight in the trenches in France, and is not exposed to the horrors of war. Drawing on his linguistic studies at Oxford, he writes a stunning reimagination of the folktales of northern Europe, producing a new synthesis, drawing on diverse, obscure, and often startling tales of magic, heroism, and suffering. The thread combining his narratives is an earthy, rootless man, somewhat short and given to epicurean delights, who journeys throughout Europe, writing down his experiences just for the pleasure of doing so.
If no war for the U.S. to enter, Secretary of the Navy Josephus Daniels might not have closed down Storeyville, the red light district in New Orleans near the port. If that had not happened, jazz musicians might have stayed instead of traveling to Chicago; as a result, jazz would not have been disseminated throughout the country in the 1920s.
Pianist Paul Wittgenstein would not have lost his right arm to amputation, thus eliminating the left hand concerti of Ravel, Prokofiev, and others. It's also highly unlikely that Stravinsky would have written "L'histoire du Soldat."
Without World War I, a man by the name of James Reese Europe would never become the "Martin Luther King" of music. Europe was the bandleader for the 369th Infantry Regiment (the "Harlem Hellfighters") Regimental Band. His unique jazz-influenced arrangements introduced American Jazz to both French citizens as well as American soldiers who would later return to the U.S., thus giving rise to the "Jazz Craze." This laid the foundations for musicians including Louis Armstrong, Duke Ellington, and many other early Jazz pioneers.
Without World War I and its inevitable successor, World War II, there would have been no GI Bill. My father was a veteran who came from a poor Italian immigrant family in Hartford. Thanks to the GI Bill he was able to attend college and buy a home. He was one of thousands who was lifted from the working class to the middle class and built the exceptional country America became in the last half of the twentieth century
World War I traumatized a generation worldwide. If it hadn't happened, there would have been no Spiritualist Movement which grew out this trauma, as thousands of people, in search of solace, desperately tried to contact their lost loved ones through seances conducted by mediums.
I can imagine a world where Superman and any hero based in science fiction does not appear. Captain America, a hero based completely in World War II does not exist since there would be no need for an American based hero whose costume is very based on the American flag. The later heroes of the Marvel universe of the 1960s which were based in science fiction or were cold war heroes might never have come to thought.
The United States would be much more polyglot than it is. Without World War I, the German language (and, by association, other immigrant languages, like Italian, Swedish, Norwegian, and Greek) would never have been banned from schools in the American heartland.
Without the horror of the Holocaust, eugenics would continue to flourish. The United States, Britain, and other countries had eugenics-influenced policies in place before World War II, and these policies didn't stop until we witnessed the resulting genocide.
Film & Television
Without WWI and no need for German Jewish refugees to escape to the U.S., many of the great studio leaders, directors, screen-writers, and film composers would not have made the journey to Hollywood.
Without World War I, the horror genre in films would never have been born. The horrific injuries of returning vets gave rise to films such as The Phantom of the Opera, Frankenstein and The Wolf Man: Creatures who were essentially sympathetic but whose disfigurement made them repulsive to society.
Downton Abbey wouldn't have existed and I would have hours of my life back. Damn you Princip!
Strange and stylish and surpassingly dark, Denis Villeneuve's Enemy — especially paired with the same director's recent cop thriller Prisoners — makes a strong case for star Jake Gyllenhaal as maybe our most enigmatic young leading man.
He was twitchily fascinating in Prisoners, playing a character who'd prove a hero but who still seemed to be hiding some darkness, some damage, right up until the credits rolled. In Enemy, he's not one but two characters dwelling deep in shadow — one man more menacing, one more moody, each one ultimately a conundrum steadfastly refusing to show all of himself to the audience.
Adam Bell is a Toronto history professor and a bit of a sad sack, delivering desultory lectures and having even more desultory sex with his girlfriend when he can be bothered to look up from his grading stack. He lives in an underlit apartment with a perpetually unmade bed, and Gyllenhaal, who's acting with every inch of his body in this film, makes him look like he smells of gin and regret.
Then, watching a DVD one grim evening, Adam spies a man, an actor playing a bellhop in a broad comedy, an actor who looks exactly like him. Startled, he looks up the guy's credits — they're pretty scanty — and tracks down the two other movies. Soon enough, he's obsessed, paying surreptitious visits to the actor's talent agency and eventually working up the nerve to call the guy's house. A woman answers, and mistakes Adam's voice for that of the actor, who's her husband. Things only get weirder from there.
Gyllenhaal plays the husband too, of course, creating a character who's subtly, unshowily recognizably not the same as Adam, even in the long wordless sequences Villeneuve likes to let the movie wallow in. It's in the set of his shoulders, the sharpness of his glance, the way his body fills space differently; Anthony, the actor, is hungrier for life, greedier, crueler.
Mind games will shortly be played, lives will be upended, and throughout, Villeneuve and screenwriter Javier Gullón, working from a novel by José Saramago, do their level best to murk things up and make you wonder: Are these men long-lost twins? (No, says Adam's mother, played tartly by Isabella Rossellini.) Has Adam gone mad and imagined Anthony? (No, suggests the amiable reaction of an attendant at that talent agency, who recognizes Adam as the actor.) Are they one man, somehow leading a double life? (No, suggests the reaction of Anthony's heavily pregnant wife (an outstanding Sarah Gadon), whose curiosity leads her to seek Adam out at his campus workplace, where she's stunned by his physical familiarity and he recognizes her not at all.)
As the questions mount and the plot's twists get more and more improbable, the director's fierce control and fine-grained technique grow all the more impressive. His Toronto, as shot by cinematographer Nicolas Bolduc, is a hell of grime and nicotine-yellow light. And he's recruited the team of Danny Bensi and Saunder Jurriaans to score the picture with what might as well be a single long groan of low strings and metal-on-metal shrieks; the effect is a creeping, inexorably escalating tension of the most delicious kind.
A few of the film's stylistic and thematic gambits are so arty and surreal that some audiences will be frustrated. (Is that ... a spider? Why are they in that sex club? Is this all about control, about men and their fear of women, about hunger and the terror of fulfilling it?)
But anyone with an appetite for the hypnotically odd — for a story that seems firmly rooted in a grim quotidian reality, but that's unmistakably off at its very core — will want to watch Enemy two or three times, looking for the tiny clues that may or may not just be there. (Recommended)
Eleven wins and nearly $300,000 later, Arthur Chu was defeated on Jeopardy! Wednesday night. He was "brain-fogged" after the marathon taping, he tells WBUR's Here and Now, but he wishes his competitor Diana Peloquin well.
During his reign, Chu faced a barrage of vitriol from fans of the show. Some critics called out his game theory strategy, others got personal.
"For whatever reason, it was like a perfect storm of different factors: the fact that my run was stretched out by those hiatuses, by the tournament they were running; the fact that there was this really strong negative reaction to me," Chu tells Here and Now co-host Jeremy Hobson.
That reaction played out on Twitter, where Chu actively engaged with haters and live-tweeted the broadcasts. But it likely wasn't just being on Twitter that drew attention, he says: "Maybe it's also because I am funnier or more interesting than other people on Twitter, or maybe it's because I'm much more obnoxious and annoying."
As Code Switch reporter Hansi Lo Wang pointed out in February, Chu's race also became part of the conversation.
"I kind of fit a certain stereotype of the hyperfocused, unlikable Asian nerd," Chu told Wang. "And the fact that I'm the Asian guy means that I'm not the underdog, that I'm the bad guy. And some regular person who the audience can identify with is the underdog."
But as he told 74-time Jeopardy! winner Ken Jennings: "I think there isn't much I would change if I could go back — I mean, the very fact that the 'haters' are the reason for me to, bizarrely, become a national celebrity means that if anything I owe the haters a favor for broadcasting their negative impression of me."
Chu will be answering questions Thursday night for a Reddit AMA, using the screen name IAmArthurChu. His "REAL ORIGINAL and UNCENSORED" self will be ready.
Oh, and he hasn't given up on Jeopardy! — or ruled out appearing on reality TV, he tells Here and Now:
"If it doesn't interfere with my contract with Jeopardy!, you know, I'd definitely consider that — hopefully not a dating show, because I'm happily married, but a different reality show concept, maybe."